A global ocean acoustic observing network

Author: B. Dushaw, W. Au, A. Beszczynska-Moller, R. Brainard, B. Cornuelle, T. Duda, M. Dzieciuch, E. Fahrbach, A. Forbes, J.-C. Gascard, A. Gavrilov, J. Gould, B. Howe, S. Jayne, O.M. Johannessen, D. Martin, D. Menemenlis, P. Mikhalevsky, J.H. Miller, W.H. Munk, J. Nystuen, R. Odom, J. Orcutt, T. Rossby, H. Sagen, S. Sandven, J. Simmen, E. Skarsoulis, R. Stephen, Sergey Vinogradov, K.B. Wong, P.F. Worcester, C. Wunsch, L. Freitag and J. Lynch
September 21, 2009 - September 25, 2009
A Community White Paper for OceanObs'09, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009

Dushaw, B., Au, W., Beszczynska-Moller, A., Brainard, R., Cornuelle, B., Duda, T., Dzieciuch, M., Fahrbach, E., Forbes, A., Freitag, L., Gascard, J.-C., Gavrilov, A., Gould, J., Howe, B., Jayne, S., Johannessen, O.M., Lynch, J., Martin, D., Menemenlis, D., Mikhalevsky, P., Miller, J.H., Munk, W.H., Nystuen, J., Odom, R., Orcutt, J., Rossby, T., Sagen, H., Sandven, S., Simmen, J., Skarsoulis, E., Stephen, R., Vinogradov, S., Wong, K.B., Worcester, P.F., and Wunsch, C. (2009), A global ocean acoustic observing network, A Community White Paper for OceanObs'09, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009.

Passive and active acoustic measurements are effective and unique approaches to ocean observation. Both approaches have techniques that are well-established and suitable for immediate deployment as part of an operational observing system. Many of these techniques exploit the remarkable ability of lowfrequency sounds to traverse great distances in the ocean. Passive acoustic measurements of natural or man-made sounds are made for diverse purposes ranging from assessing the environmental impact of human activities, to geophysics, to monitoring changes in biodiversity in response to climate change. Active acoustic systems are employed for tracking instruments and acoustic tomography. Tomography has a role in the ocean observing system that is complementary to altimetry and profiling floats, particularly in the context of data assimilation and ocean modeling. Modest systems of acoustic receivers and sources deployed across ocean basins can make cost effective, sustained observations of a variety of ocean processes.