Radio occultation (RO) using the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) can be used to infer atmospheric profiles of microwave refractivity in the Earth’s atmosphere. GNSS RO data are now assimilated into numerical weather prediction models and used for climate monitoring. New remote sensing applications are being considered that fuse GNSS RO soundings and passive nadir-scanned radiance soundings. Collocating RO soundings and nadir-scanned radiance soundings, however, is computationally expensive, especially as new commercial GNSS RO constellations greatly increase the number of global daily RO soundings. A team led by AER Principal Scientist Stephen Leroy developed a new and efficient technique, called the “rotation–collocation method”, for collocating RO and nadir-scanned radiance soundings in which all soundings are rotated into the time-dependent reference frame in which the nadir sounder’s scan pattern is stationary. Collocations with RO soundings are then found when the track of an RO sounding crosses the line corresponding to the nadir sounder’s scan pattern. When applied to finding collocations between RO soundings from COSMIC-2, Metop-B–GRAS, and Metop-C–GRAS and the passive microwave (MW) soundings of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on NOAA-20 and Suomi-NPP and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) on Metop-B and Metop-C for the month of January 2021, the rotation-collocation method proves to be 99.0% accurate and is hundreds to thousands of times faster than traditional approaches to finding collocations.
Figure: This figure shows the locations of all radio occultation soundings with nadir-scan passive microwave soundings for January 15, 2021. The results of a “brute force” truth algorithm and a new “rotation-collocation” algorithm are shown. The latter algorithm is 1,000 times more computationally efficient that the former algorithm.
Citation: Efficient collocation of global navigation satellite system radio occultation soundings with passive nadir microwave soundings
A. Meredith, S. Leroy, L. Halperin, K. Cahoy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16(1), 3345–3361, 2023