Solar flare

Solar Storm Risk to the North American Electric Grid

By Lloyds of London
May 22, 2013

Type: PDF The report "Solar Storm Risk to the North American Electric Grid: A Lloyds Space Weather Study" examines space weather risk to the electric grid and why this has important implications for the insurance industry. After a brief explanation of the characteristics of geomagnetic storms, the report analyzes the likelihood of extreme geomagnetic storms, specific vulnerabilities of the Nort...

Validating the proton prediction system (PPS)

By S.W. Kahler, E. W. Cliver, Alan G. Ling
February 1, 2007

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics